Active Ingredients: Azithromycin
These are all things I will be able to share in the near future, I don't like surprises but that's the way it goes sometimes. Fuck it's like the moment I turned 30 and things just started falling into place.
Although dogs are considered maintenance hosts for leptospires in serogroup Canicola, the prevalence of seroreactivity to this serogroup in dogs from the United States and Europe currently is low.
Infection with serogroup Canicola serovars was reported in dogs from the United States in the 1950 s and 1960 s.
A high prevalence of seroreactivity to serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae sometimes has been documented in nonrodent periurban wildlife eg, raccoons 73, and the role of transmission of serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae by these hosts is unclear.Since the introduction of bivalent Icterohaemorrhagiae in Iran, but its role as of additional serovars has been suspected.
Given that the MAT is not effective for predicting the infecting serovar, more studies by isolation are required to confirm the importance of various wildlife hosts as reservoirs of serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae.
Serovars from serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola cause disease in dogs after experimental inoculation.
However, another Bratislava serovar was isolated from a dog with leptospirosis. Serovar Grippotyphosa also causes disease in dogs, 18, 48 and other studies have reported disease in association with serogroups Sejroe 82 and Ballum. Antibody titers to serovar Autumnalis often increase together with antibody titers to serovars Grippotyphosa, Pomona, and Bratislava.
Nonspecific increases in titers to serogroup Autumnalis have been observed in dogs with diseases other than leptospirosis, and in dogs vaccinated for or infected with serogroup Pomona or Grippotyphosa unpublished observations, and caution is advised when interpreting titers to this serovar.
Renal tubular infection by leptospires is associated with acute interstitial nephritis and tubular dysfunction, although acute tubular necrosis can occur in naturally infected dogs.
In contrast to what is observed in cattle, hemolysis does not appear to be a feature of canine leptospirosis. Clotting function assays in dogs with leptospirosis show variable increases in fibrinogen, D-Dimer and fibrinogen degradation product concentrations, and decreases in antithrombin activity, in addition to thrombocytopenia.
Use of antibody testing for diagnosis of leptospirosis generally is based on the MAT, which involves reacting serial dilutions of patient sera with an array of live leptospiral serovars, and assessment of organism agglutination by darkfield microscopy.
The MAT is widely available and inexpensive, and there is a large body of data regarding its use; as such, it is the current diagnostic test of choice for canine leptospirosis in patients with consistent clinical signs.
Unfortunately, the test is hazardous to perform because of the need to maintain live cultures of pathogenic serovars, and is difficult to standardize. Test interpretation is somewhat subjective and requires considerable expertise, and serovar identity must be verified regularly to ensure accurate results.
Considerable variation in results has been noted among laboratories performing the MAT for diagnosis of canine leptospirosis, possibly as a result of variable quality control and standardization.
The International Leptospirosis Society offers an inexpensive leptospirosis testing proficiency scheme that enables laboratories to maintain quality assurance for the MAT on a regular basis. Molecular methods also have been advocated to ensure quality control within leptospiral reference laboratories.
Traditionally, convalescent titers for acute infectious disease diagnosis are performed 2—4 weeks after the acute titer, although seroconversion can occur as early as 3—5 days after dogs are brought to a veterinarian.