Active Ingredients: Azithromycin
Another side effect of this type of medication is the prolongation of QT, leading to cardiac arrhythmias. It is always essential to have a baseline EKG when using this medication.
Cholestatic hepatitis has been often reported in patients using this medication. Rifampin is potentially hepatotoxic. It requires caution in a patient with ongoing liver impairment or excessive use of alcohol.
One of the most known side effects with rifampin is red-orange discoloration of urine, feces, and saliva.
It can stain contact lenses permanently. There are reports of thrombocytopenia and vasculitis. Ethambutol is another medication used in the treatment of NTM.
One of the most serious adverse reactions is optic neuritis with decreased visual acuity, central scotoma, loss of ability to see green, and perception problems; peripheral neuropathy and headache are the most commons side effects reported.
Differential Diagnosis Like other lung etiologies, NTM lung infection affects the host in several ways. Clinical manifestation could mimic other lung infections, such as Mycobacterial tuberculosis, atypical bacterial infections, and chronic lung diseases.
Clinicians should approach the differential diagnostic of pulmonary pathologies based on the clinical manifestations and radiological characteristics. Mycoplasma, chlamydia, and viral pneumonia are relevant entities to include in the differential.
Prognosis The prognosis of NTM lung infection is guarded.
Patients who have a fragile immune system are more prone to worse outcomes when compared with immunocompetent patients.
Also, the prognosis will depend on the type of NTM lung infection. Recent studies have shown that patients with MAC lung infection have a better prognosis when compared to patients with other NTM infections.
Complications Like other lung etiologies, NTM lung infection affects the host in several ways.
Among the differential diagnosis infections, neoplasias, and connective tissue diseases most commonly share similarities to NTM lung infections. Others are fungal lung infections like Aspergillus, Histoplasma, and Coccidiosis, to name a few.
Small cell and non-small-cell lung cancer are important to consider.
Moreover, disorders of the connective tissue, such as rheumatoid arthritis lung diseases, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, represent an essential part of the differential as well.
Overall, any entity that presents with respiratory manifestations, and either cavitary or bronchiectasis radiological lung pictures on images, is part of the differential diagnostic, and these conditions need to be ruled out.
Deterrence and Patient Education Prevention of NTM is a rather challenging task due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment.
Therefore, it is necessary to discuss with the patient about disease prevention remains problematic. Also, it is unclear how to assess whether the patient is susceptible to NTM and if it would be efficacious to educate patients in the avoidance of specific environmental sources.Anyone that knows the solution will. Is there anyone else having identical you kindly respond.
As an example, it is a known fact that hot showers can be a vector of transmission for the disease, but it is unclear if educating the patient on avoiding hot showers will decrease the chances of infection.