Active Ingredients: Norfloxacin
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Ubiquinol has a stronger antioxidant action in comparison with ubiquinone. It can regenerate other antioxidants such as vitamin E and vitamin C. Ubiquinol sperm concentration strongly correlates with sperm count, motility, and morphology.
Carnitine-ubiquinol combination displays a beneficial effect on sperm mitochondrial function of infertile men.
However, further studies are required to support this hypothesis. Carnitine Currently, carnitine is the molecule with antioxidant activity that has the greatest consensus in literature, especially in its forms L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine.
L-carnitine mainly of exogenous origin though human beings are able to synthesize is a high-polar, water-soluble quaternary amine.
It acts as an essential cofactor for the transport of long chain fatty acids within the mitochondrial matrix in order to facilitate the oxidative processes and to enhance cellular energy production.
L-acetylcarnitine, instead, is formed by the enzyme acetyl-L-carnitine transferase that modulates the intracellular and mitochondrial concentration of coenzyme A CoA and acetyl-CoA. Interestingly, high concentrations of carnitine are present in the male reproductive tract and particularly in the epididymis, suggesting its crucial role in energy metabolism and sperm maturation.
Hence, carnitine concentration in the ejaculate is considered a marker of epididymal function and some studies have shown a decreased L-carnitine concentration in the seminal fluid of patients with epididymitis.
The antioxidant properties of carnitine have been studied in men with male accessory gland inflammation.Search Menu Abstract Inappropriate use of antibiotic drugs in humans and animals has led to widespread resistance among microbial pathogens.
The beneficial effects of L-carnitine on sperm parameters are well known. Moreover, treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine increases sperm motility and viability in asymptomatic infertile patients with ROS overproduction and ultrasonographic evidence of PVE who already received antimicrobial therapy.
Interestingly, the addition of L-carnitine in samples to be cryopreservation improves significantly sperm quality.
Myoinositol Inositol is a component of the vitamin B complex. MYO, the most biologically important form in nature, is a precursor of second messengers and it is involved in several signal transduction mechanisms in the cell membrane.
It regulates seminal plasma osmolarity, the expression of proteins essential for embryogenetic development and for sperm chemiotaxis and sperm motility.
In addition, inositols are involved in sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. Incubation with MYO results in an increased sperm motility and in a higher number of spermatozoa retrieved by swim-up in both normozoospermic men and in patients with abnormal sperm parameters.
This was associated with an improvement of sperm mitochondrial function in patients with OAT. On this basis, the therapeutic use of MYO has been suggested in both in vivo and in vitro assisted reproductive techniques.
Accordingly, oral supplementation with MYO seems to improve sperm parameters.
In particular, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study showed that patients with idiopathic infertility, treated for three months with MYO 2 g twice daily, had a significant increase of sperm concentration, total count, progressive motility, and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa.
Lycopene Lycopene is a constituent of the human redox protection mechanism against ROS. Although few studies investigated its effects on sperm parameters, it seems to be a therapeutic choice in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility.