Active Ingredients: Clomiphene
Ironically, paramedics and just plain citizens assist in out-of-hospital births by the thousands each year, and their success record is good and they are not held liable to criminal or civil penalties for so doing.
We are planning to run candidates in just about every House race next year, and we will make these issues a factor in those races.
But we also need help doing so because special interests big dairy conglomerates and medical societies do not use their PACs to funnel thousands of dollars behind our candidates.
We have to do it ourselves. The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily dose of 25 mg clomiphene citrate CC is effective in stimulating the endogenous testosterone production pathway and to address the applicability of this medication as a therapeutic option for symptomatic hypogonadism.
Blood samples were obtained to determine baseline measurements of serum T, estradiol, LH, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose.
Each patient was treated with a daily dose of 25 mg CC for at least 3 months. Conclusions Enclomiphene citrate increased serum LH and total testosterone; however, there was not a temporal association between the peak drug levels and the maximum concentration levels of LH or total testosterone.
Enclomiphene citrate consistently increased serum total testosterone into the normal range and increased LH and FSH above the normal range.
The effects on LH and total testosterone persisted for at least 1 week after stopping treatment. Zuclomiphene is thought to cause some of the side effects that have been associated with clomiphene citrate.
One example is men treated with exogenous testosterone, as such treatment will relieve symptoms of secondary hypogonadism but will not maintain or restore sperm production in the testes.
These men present with low total testosterone and low or inappropriately normal gonadotropin levels LH and FSH.
Treatment of these men with an anti-oestrogen or an aromatase inhibitor can increase gonadotropin and testosterone levels; however, enclomiphene citrate is not proposed for some forms of secondary hypogonadism such as pituitary tumours, craniopharingiomas, haemochromatsis or congenital GnRH deficiency.
The consequences of long-term secondary hypogonadism are recognized health problems typically associated with ageing. Many studies have shown that serum total and free testosterone in levels in obese men are significantly lower than aged-matched healthy male controls.
The European Male Ageing Study showed that obesity and ageing are risk factors for secondary hypogonadism, while the prevalence of primary hypogonadism is also linked to age.
Biological rhythms dominate reproductive hormone release in both males and females. Patients with this hypothalamic defect have helped elucidate the feedback control of sex steroids at the level of the pituitary and the hypothalamus and to identify additional defects.
At the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes there is a clear rhythm that results in the testicular production of testosterone in males, with healthy young men experiencing a morning peak, a trough in the early evening, followed by a gradual increase towards the morning peak.
In most ageing men there is an overall decrease in testosterone levels and a blunting in circadian androgen levels, perhaps caused by the disruption of feedback and feed-forward control mechanisms.
Oestrogens have also been shown to play a role in these feedback processes in men. In most studies with transdermal testosterone the determination of serum levels of total testosterone constitutes pharmacokinetics.
In the present study, treatment with oral enclomiphene citrate constitutes pharmacodynamics.
In an early phase II study we evaluated the potential of oral enclomiphene citrate to increase serum testosterone levels in 52 men with secondary hypogonadism. Men who had low total testosterone values at baseline had significant increases in serum total testosterone levels after 2 weeks of treatment with enclomiphene citrate.
A more recent study provided evidence that enclomiphene citrate raises testosterone levels in men with secondary hypogonadism and also preserves or improves sperm counts.