Active Ingredients: Ciprofloxacin
Side effects were noted by spontaneous reporting and by questioning during examinations 12, 24, and 48 h after medication. Blood samples were collected before and 0.
Five milliliters of blood was taken for high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC analyses of all fluoroquinolones. After blood collection to obtain serum, the samples were stored at room temperature for about 30 min.
Urine samples were collected predose and at 0 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 12, 12 to 24, and 24 to 48 h after medication. All samples serum and urine were protected against light during processing and storage.
Concentrations of ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin in serum and urine were determined by a validated HPLC method involving protein precipitation.
For the analysis of gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, and moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin was added as an internal standard. The extract was then chromatographed and quantified by fluorimetric detection.
Urine samples were diluted only for the mobile phase. Details of the analysis of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin have been described previously 4.
HPLC measurements for gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and grepafloxacin were similar to those for ciprofloxacin.
Each method was validated.
The detection limits were between 0. She died on the 28 th hospital day of TEN, right ventricular failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
As of, 9 cases of TEN, including 5 fatalities, had been reported in the literature. Erythema nodosum, Stevens-Johnson syndrome potentially life-threatening, and TEN potentially life-threatening have also been reported during postmarketing experience.
One survey reported 11 cases of peripheral neuropathy associated with this drug.
The severity ranged from mild and reversible to severe and persistent. In 1 case, a 44-year-old female developed numbness, allodynia, hypoesthesia, tremors, electrical and diffuse burning sensations, twitching, disorientation, visual impairment, nausea, temperature intolerance, rash, and palpitations; she remained disabled after 29 months.Stahlmann R 1, Lode H. Fluoroquinolones in the elderly: safety considerations.
Nystagmus, anosmia, hyperesthesia, hypoesthesia, hypertonia, intracranial hypertension, and exacerbation of myasthenia gravis have also been reported during postmarketing experience.
Increased INR was reported in patients treated with vitamin K antagonists.
Liver necrosis and hepatic failure including fatal cases have also been reported during postmarketing experience. Agitation, confusion, and toxic psychosis have also been reported during postmarketing experience.
At physiological urinary pH, the risk of crystalluria was considered minor. Vaginal candidiasis has also been reported during postmarketing experience.