Active Ingredients: Amoxicillin
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After the last wash, plates were additionally washed twice in running tap water. Single Cell Suspensions of Small Intestinal and Lymphoid Tissues Small intestine lamina propria LP samples stored on ice were opened longitudinally and cut into 5 mm pieces.
After fixation and permeabilization, the cells were blocked as described above. Samples were incubated on ice for 20 min and mixed by vortexing every 5 min. The concentrations were determined in triplicates and calculated from the duplicated standard curves generated for each plate.
Xylene VWR Chemicals was used as clearing agent to replace the ethanol before the tissues were embedded in paraffin Hounisen, Skanderborg, Denmark. Analyses of histological sections were performed blinded. RNA quality and quantity were assessed using NanoDrop.
Graphs and additionally statistically analyses were generated in Prism version 8. Non-parametric Spearman correlations were calculated between all pairs of relative abundance of small intestine genera present in minimum 10 animals and selected host response parameters.
When indicated, p-values were false discovery rate FDR corrected by a two-stage sharpened method Benjamini et al. Results Amoxicillin Transiently Reduces Fecal Bacterial Load and Persistently Decreases Fecal Microbial Diversity BN rats were gavaged daily with either amoxicillin or water for 1 week, and the temporal effects on fecal bacterial load and composition were followed.
The effect of amoxicillin on bacterial load was transient since no differences were observed compared to the initial level nor to the control group from day 2 and onward.
A statistically significant reduction in diversity was observed in the amoxicillin group as compared to the initial level from day 1, as well as between the amoxicillin and control group from day 2 Figure 1 B.
Temporal effects of amoxicillin on fecal bacterial load and composition. C Mean relative abundance of bacterial classes.